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Gynecomastia is an enlargement of the breasts in men. This condition is not the same as having a fatty breast area from obesity. The breast tissue is firm in men with gynecomastia.
This may occur in up to one-third of men. More than half of boys will develop some degree of breast enlargement during puberty. This is normal and usually goes away by age 18.
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All men produce male and female hormones. Normally, men produce much more male hormones than female hormones. Gynecomastia is caused by an imbalance in the female and male hormones. The hormone imbalance can be caused by:
- Adolescent puberty changes
- Aging, especially in association with low testosterone levels
- Certain genetic disorders causing low levels of testosterone
- Certain medications, such as digoxin, spironolactone, cimetidine, and many others
- Anabolic steroids used to enhance athletic performance in sports
Gynecomastia is more common in adolescents or in men over age 50.
Factors that may increase your risk of gynecomastia include:
- Excess alcohol consumption leading to liver cirrhosis
- Chronic liver or kidney disease
- Presence of a condition or medication that decreases androgen or estrogen production
- Family history
- Marijuana use
- Hyperthyroidism —overactive thyroid gland
- Tumors of the testicles, lung, stomach, liver, kidney, or pituitary gland
Symptoms of gynecomastia include:
- Enlargement of the breasts with firm tissue, usually starts on one side and go on to affect both breasts
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Your doctor will focus on your weight, breast exam, testicular exam, and any other signs of a hormone problem. You may be referred to a doctor who specializes in hormone disorders.
Other tests may be done if you have prolonged or large gynecomastia.
Your body's fluids and tissues may be tested. This can be done with:
- Blood tests
Images may be taken of your chest. This can be done with:
Treatment for gynecomastia is rarely needed. However, it is important to find and treat the underlying cause of the gynecomastia. If a medication is causing gynecomastia, you will be asked to stop taking it or to switch medication. If a tumor is causing the problem, your doctor will make a treatment plan for the tumor.
Medications may be used if needed to treat the gynecomastia. However, they can produce unwanted side effects. Surgery may also be used to remove breast tissue.
Some gynecomastia may be prevented by avoiding known risk factors. This includes avoiding:
- Excessive alcohol consumption
Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians
Healthy Children—American Academy of Pediatrics
Men's Health Centre
Gynecomastia. Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/gynecomastia.html. Updated January 18, 2018. Accessed March 20, 2018.
Gynecomastia. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116259/Gynecomastia . Updated June 15, 2017. Accessed March 20, 2018.
Johnson RE, Kermott CA, et al. Gynecomastia: evaluation and current treatment options. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2011;7:145-148.
Wollina U, Goldman A. Minimally invasive esthetic procedures of the male breast. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2011;10(2):150-155.
- Reviewer: EBSCO Medical Review Board Kari Kassir, MD
- Review Date: 03/2018
- Update Date: 05/11/2013