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by Scholten A

Glomerulonephritis

(Glomerular Disease)

Definition

Glomerulonephritis is damage to tiny filters in the kidneys. This makes it hard for the kidneys to remove waste and make urine. The waste then builds up in the body and leads to other health problems.
It may be sudden (acute) or happen slowly over time (chronic).
Anatomy of the Kidney
Glomerulonephritis
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

Causes

Causes may be:
  • Infections, such as strep throat, HIV, endocarditis
  • Immune system problems, such as lupus
  • Problems with blood vessels
  • Other kidney problems
  • Changes in genes
  • Diabetes
  • Damage due to drugs or toxins

Risk Factors

Things that may raise the risk are:
  • A family history of kidney disease
  • Past or current kidney problems
  • Having other health problems such as diabetes and high blood pressure
  • Taking certain medicines
  • Exposure to toxins

Symptoms

Some people do not have symptoms. Those who do may have:
  • Swelling from fluid buildup
  • Urine that has blood or looks foamy
  • Lower amounts of urine
  • Tiredness
  • Dry, itchy skin
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Loss of hunger
  • Muscle cramps at night

Diagnosis

The doctor will ask about your symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done. You may need to see a doctor who treats kidney diseases.
Blood and urine tests will be done to check kidney function.
Images may need to be taken of the kidneys. This can be done with an ultrasound.
A small sample of the kidney may need to be removed and tested. This can be done with a kidney biopsy.

Treatment

Some people with the acute form may get better with time. Others may need treatment to keep the kidney working. This also lowers the risk of further injury. Treatment depends on the cause. Options may be:
  • Stopping or changing medicines that are harming the kidneys
  • Medicines to:
    • Control problems that hurt the kidneys, such as high blood pressure and diabetes
    • Manage problems caused by the condition, such as swelling, nausea, or feeling tired
    • Treat infections
  • Lifestyle changes, such as dietary changes, not smoking, and maintaining a healthy weight
  • Dialysis to filter blood when the kidneys cannot

Prevention

The risk may be lowered by managing health problems that can harm the kidneys.

RESOURCES

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
https//www.niddk.nih.gov
National Kidney Foundation
https://www.kidney.org

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Health Canada
https://www.canada.ca
The Kidney Foundation of Canada
https://www.kidney.ca

References

Awdishu, L., Mehta, R.L. The 6R’s of drug induced nephrotoxicity. BMC Nephrol 18, 124 (2017).
Glomerular disease-approach to patient. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/approach-to/glomerular-disease-approach-to-the-patient. Accessed December 30, 2020.
Glomerulonephritis. National Kidney Foundation website. Available at: https://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/glomerul. Accessed December 30, 2020.
Overview of glomerular disorders. Merck Manual Professional Version website. Available at: https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/genitourinary-disorders/glomerular-disorders/overview-of-glomerular-disorders. Accessed December 30, 2020.

Revision Information

  • Reviewer: EBSCO Medical Review Board Adrienne Carmack, MD
  • Review Date: 09/2020
  • Update Date: 12/30/2020
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