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by Carmack A


(Pseudomembranous trigonitis)


The trigone is a triangular area in the lower bladder. Trigonitis is inflammation of this area.
The Bladder
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It is not clear why these cells change in some people and not others, but the change may be stimulated by:
  • Bladder irritation
  • Urinary tract infections

Risk Factors

Trigonitis is more common in women and people who have had a catheter in place for a long period of time.


Symptoms may include:
  • Pelvic pain
  • Difficulty urinating
  • An increase in the urge to urinate


You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
Your bodily fluids may be tested. This can be done with:
  • Urine tests
  • Urine culture
  • Blood tests


Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. In some cases, trigonitis may not need to be treated and will resolve on its own.


You may be advised to take antibiotics to treat infection. Your sexual partner may also be advised to take antibiotics to prevent trigonitis from returning.


If you have a catheter, talk to your doctor about how long it should be in place. Long-term use may result in trigonitis.


Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians
Urology Care Foundation


Canadian Urological Association
Health Canada


Cheung WW, Kawa S. Trigonitis. Medscape website. Available at: Accessed September 7, 2017.
Complicated urinary tract infection (UTI). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: . Updated January 26, 2017. Accessed September 7, 2017.
Stavropoulos M, Papatsoris AG, Konstantinidis C, Chrisofos M. Pseudomembranous trigonitis: a common but underrecognized urological entity. Adv Urol. 2010;2010:269254 Available at:

Revision Information

  • Reviewer: EBSCO Medical Review Board Adrienne Carmack, MD
  • Review Date: 09/2018
  • Update Date: 05/06/2020
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