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by Carmack A

Trigonitis

(Pseudomembranous trigonitis)

Definition

The trigone is a part of the lower bladder. Trigonitis is inflammation of this area.
The Bladder
IMAGE
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

Causes

Trigonitis is caused by a change in cells of this area. It is not clear why this happens in some people and not others. The change may be related to:
  • Bladder irritation
  • Urinary tract infections
  • Hormones

Risk Factors

Trigonitis is more common in women. It may also be more likely in those that have catheters in place for a long period of time.

Symptoms

Trigonitis may cause:
  • Pelvic pain
  • Problems passing urine
  • An increase in the urge to urinate

Diagnosis

The doctor will ask about symptoms and past health. A physical exam will be done. Tests may be done to rule out other problems that cause same symptoms. Tests may include
  • Urine tests
  • Urine culture
  • Blood tests

Treatment

Trigonitis may pass on its own. Others may need treatment to ease symptoms. Medicine may help to:
  • Ease bladder spasms or pain
  • Treat any infections that may be present (antibiotics)

Prevention

Catheters increase the risk of trigonitis. Limiting use and length of use may decrease the risk.

RESOURCES

Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians
https://familydoctor.org
Urology Care Foundation
http://www.urologyhealth.org

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Canadian Urological Association
http://www.cua.org
Health Canada
https://www.canada.ca

References

Cheung WW, Kawa S. Trigonitis. Medscape website. Available at: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/438185-overview. Accessed September 3, 2020.
Complicated urinary tract infection (UTI). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/complicated-urinary-tract-infection-uti . Accessed September 3, 2020.
Stavropoulos M, Papatsoris AG, Konstantinidis C, Chrisofos M. Pseudomembranous trigonitis: a common but underrecognized urological entity. Adv Urol. 2010;2010:269254 Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2997493.

Revision Information

  • Reviewer: EBSCO Medical Review Board Adrienne Carmack, MD
  • Review Date: 09/2020
  • Update Date: 09/03/2020
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