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(Gallbladder Removal; Lap Chole)
Click here to view an animated version of this procedure.
Cholecystectomy is the removal of the gallbladder. Laparoscopic is one method for this surgery. Special tools are passed through small cuts in the belly. The tools will be able to cut and remove the gallbladder. This option can decrease recovery time compared to an open surgery which needs a large cut into the belly.
|Laparoscopic vs. Open Cholecystectomy|
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Reasons for Procedure
A diseased or damaged gallbladder may need to be removed. Gallstones are the most common cause. The stones can cause damage to gallbladder and liver if left untreated.
Problems from the procedure are rare, but all procedures have some risk. Your doctor will review problems that can occur like:
- Gallstones that end up in the belly
- Injury to other nearby structures or organs
- Reactions to general anesthesia
- Blood clots
Some factors that can increase your risk of problems include:
What to Expect
Prior to Procedure
Your doctor will use info from earlier tests. Helpful information may include:
- Abdominal ultrasound
- Hepatobiliary iminodiacetic acid (HIDA) scan
- MRI or CT scan
- ECG and chest x-ray —to make sure that the heart and lungs are healthy enough for surgery
Leading up to your procedure:
- Talk to your doctor about any medicine you take. You may be asked to stop taking some medicine before the procedure.
- Arrange for a ride to and from the procedure. Also, have someone help you at home.
- The night before, eat a light meal. Do not eat or drink anything after midnight.
- You may be given laxatives or an enema. They will help to clean out your intestines.
- If instructed, shower before the procedure. You may be given special soap to use.
General anesthesia will be used. You will be asleep for the procedure.
Description of Procedure
Four small cuts will be made in your belly. Air will be pumped into the belly. It will increase space inside and make it easier to see the gallbladder.
A small scope will be passed through one of the openings. It will send images of the gallbladder to a screen in the room. The doctor will use the images to guide the tools and remove the gallbladder. Other tools will be passed through the other cuts. They will be used to hold the gallbladder. The main artery and tube that passes fluid to intestine will be clipped. The gallbladder will then be detached and removed. The doctor may look for stones in the tube that runs from the liver to the intestine. Any stones will be removed. The belly will be carefully checked.
The cuts will be closed with stitches or staples. The area will be covered with bandages. A tiny, flexible tube may be placed in one of the cuts. It will exit from your belly into a little bulb. This will help to drain fluid from the area to help recovery. The tube is usually removed within 1 week.
Immediately After Procedure
You will be taken to a recovery room. There you will be cared for while you wake up from anesthesia.
How Long Will It Take?
About 30 to 60 minutes
How Much Will It Hurt?
Anesthesia will prevent pain during surgery. The cuts will be sore for the next few days. The air used to pump up the stomach can also cause some discomfort in first 1 to 2 days. Medicine can help to manage the discomfort as well as rest.
Average Hospital Stay
You may be able to go home the same day or the next day. You may need to stay longer if there were problems.
At the Hospital
After the procedure, the hospital staff will:
- Monitor you for any problems.
- Give medicine to control pain and nausea.
- Give nutrition through an IV if needed.
- Move you from a liquid diet to soft foods.
At first, your intestines will work more slowly than usual. Chewing gum may help.
Full recovery takes about 3 weeks. The gallbladder plays a role in breaking down fatty food. The liver will begin to take over the job but you may need to make some changes in the beginning. You will be given a food plan.
Call Your Doctor
Call your doctor if any of these occur::
- Signs of infection, including fever and chills
- Redness, swelling, increasing pain, excessive bleeding, or discharge at the incision site
- Cough, shortness of breath, chest pain
- Increased abdominal pain
- Pain that you cannot control with the medications you were given
- Blood in the stool
- Persistent nausea or vomiting
- Bloating and gas that persist for more than a month
- Pain or swelling in your feet, calves, or legs
- Dark urine, light stools, or yellowing of the skin or eyes
If you think you have an emergency, call for emergency medical services right away.
American Gastroenterological Association
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
Canadian Association of Gastroenterology
Canadian Digestive Health Foundation
Cholecystectomy. American College of Surgeons website. Available at: https://www.facs.org/~/media/files/education/patient%20ed/cholesys.ashx. Accessed March 26, 2021.
Cholecystectomy. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T900759/Cholecystectomy . Accessed March 26, 2021.
Clayton ES, Connor S, Alexakis N, Leandros E. Meta-analysis of endoscopy and surgery versus surgery alone for common bile duct stones with the gallbladder in situ. Br J Surg. 2006;93(10):1185-1191.
Dasari BV, Tan CJ, Gurusamy KS, et al. Surgical versus endoscopic treatment of bile duct stones. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;12:CD003327.
Gallbladder surgery: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy. UC Davis Health website. Available at: http://www.ucdmc.ucdavis.edu/surgery/specialties/gastro/gall.html. Accessed March 26, 2021.
Laparoscopic gallbladder removal (cholecystectomy) from SAGES. Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons website. Available at: https://www.sages.org/publications/patient-information/patient-information-for-laparoscopic-gallbladder-removal-cholecystectomy-from-sages. Accessed March 26, 2021.
3/23/2015 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T905418/Prevention-and-management-of-postoperative-ileus : Short V, Herbert G, Perry R, et al. Chewing gum for postoperative recovery of gastrointestinal function. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;2:CD006506.
- Reviewer: EBSCO Medical Review Board Marcin Chwistek, MD
- Review Date: 03/2021
- Update Date: 03/03/2021