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Drugs That May Lead to Heart Damage
If you are taking medication for a condition, or using illegal drugs or other substances, it is important to know about potential side effects and adverse reactions. One of your best sources of information is a doctor who has a thorough knowledge of your health history.
Below are examples of medications and illegal drugs that may cause heart problems. If you have concerns about the specific medications that you are taking, talk to your doctor.
Examples of medications in this class include:
Anthracyclines are prescribed to treat cancer. If used for a long time or in high doses, anthracyclines may cause damage to the heart muscle, including cardiomyopathy, a condition that causes abnormal growth of muscle fibers. This can lead progressive weakening of the heart muscle, leading to heart failure.
If you are taking anthracyclines, your doctor will carefully control the dose and monitor your heart function.
Antipsychotic drugs are typically used to treat certain mental disorders, such as schizophrenia. Examples of medications in this class include:
Some antipsychotic drugs may increase the risk of cardiovascular problems like abnormal heart rhythms, cardiac arrest, or stroke.
Before you use these medications, be sure to talk to your doctor about their risks and benefits.
Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used to reduce fever and pain. They can also be used to decrease pain and swelling associated with inflammation. NSAIDs are available by prescription from your doctor and some are available over-the-counter. A type of NSAID, called COX-2 inhibitors, carry the same risks as other NSAIDs.
Possible heart-related side effects from NSAID use include:
- Heart attack
- Increased blood pressure
You may be at a greater risk for adverse effects from NSAIDs if you:
- Have been taking the medication for a long period of time
- Already have risk factors for cardiovascular disease
If you have any concerns about taking medications for pain or fever, talk to your doctor.
Drugs for Type 2 Diabetes
There are many different types of drugs that are used to treat type 2 diabetes. In general, thiazolidinediones are associated with an increased risk of heart attack and heart failure. One drug in particular is rosiglitazone. Rosiglitazone may be taken alone or in combination with other medications.
Recreational and Street Drugs
Amphetamines and Amphetamine-like Substances
Amphetamines (also called speed or uppers when used illegally) are stimulants that can decrease the appetite and need for sleep. They are most commonly used to treat attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Sudden death, stroke, and heart attacks have been reported in people abusing this type of medication. Examples of prescription drugs using amphetamines include dextroamphetamine, dextroamphetamine combined with amphetamine, or methyphenidate. Many amphetamines are also illegally manufactured.
Anabolic steroids are synthetic derivatives of the male hormone testosterone that are taken to build muscle and enhance athletic performance. Steroids like testosterone and methyltestosterone may be prescribed if you have certain conditions, like hypogonadism or breast cancer.
When abused, steroids lead to many serious adverse effects, including
Cocaine and Crack
Cocaine and crack (rock crystal form) are illegal drugs that provide immediate euphoric effects. These powerfully addictive drugs can constrict the heart’s blood vessels, making the heart work harder and faster to pump blood. Cocaine and crack can cause heart rhythm problems, heart attack, and stroke.
Club drugs are illegally manufactured drugs that were originally used at all night dance clubs. People in a variety of social situations abuse these types of drugs. Examples include:
- Ecstasy or Molly—These stimulants can lead to increased heart rate, high blood pressure, and heart disease.
- Ketamine—Katamine is a veterinary anesthetic, a depressant that can cause increased blood pressure.
Get Information About Drugs and Possible Interactions
If you take any drugs that have the potential to cause heart damage, talk to your doctor about any concerns you may have. Before taking any new prescription or nonprescription drug, talk to your doctor or pharmacist about possible side effects and drug interactions. Even if the drug you take does not have the potential to affect your heart when taken by itself, it is possible that it could have adverse effects when taken with another drug, food, or substance.
If you are struggling with a drug addiction, talk to your doctor. There are effective treatments to help you to recover from drug abuse.
American Heart Association
US Food and Drug Administration
The College of Family Physicians of Canada
Ibuprofen. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T233086/Ibuprofen. Updated December 7, 2016. Accessed January 5, 2017.
Antipsychotics. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114083/Antipsychotics. Updated November 22, 2016. Accessed January 5, 2017.
Dextroamphetamine. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T233048/Dextroamphetamine. Updated December 7, 2016. Accessed January 5, 2017.
DrugFacts: Anabolic steroids. National Institute on Drug Abuse website. Available at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/anabolic-steroids. Updated March 2016. Accessed January 5, 2017.
DrugFacts: Club drugs (GHB, ketamine, and rohypnol). National Institute on Drug Abuse website. Available at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/club-drugs-ghb-ketamine-rohypnol. Updated January 2016. Accessed January 5, 2017.
Gislason GH, Jacobsen S, et al. Risk of death or reinfarction associated with the use of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs after acute myocardial infarction. Circulation. 2006;113:2906-2913.
Glucose lowering medications for type 2 diabetes. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115979/Glucose-lowering-medications-for-type-2-diabetes. Updated November 21, 2016. Accessed January 5, 2017.
Jensen BV. Cardiotoxic consequences of anthracycline-containing therapy in patients with breast cancer. Semin Oncol. 2006;33:S15-S21.
Koro CE, Bowlin SJ, et al. Antidiabetic therapy and the risk of heart failure in type 2 diabetic patients: An independent effect or confounding by indication. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2005;14:697-703.
Loke Y, Derry S, et al. Appetite suppressants and valvular heart disease—a systematic review. BMC Clin Pharmacol. 2002;2:6.
MDMA (ecstasy or Molly). National Institute on Drug Abuse. Available at: http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/mdma-ecstasy-or-molly. Updated October 2016. Accessed January 5, 2017.
Mukherjee D, Nissen SE, et al. Risk of cardiovascular events associated with selective COX-2 inhibitors. JAMA. 2001;286:954-959.
Neuteufl T, Heher S, et al. Contribution of nicotine to acute endothelial dysfunction in long-term smokers. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002;39:251-256.
Opioid abuse or dependence. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T219069/Opioid-abuse-or-dependence. Updated October 5, 2016. Accessed January 5, 2017.
Taubert KA. Cardiology patient pages. Can patients with cardiovascular disease take nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs? Circulation. 2008;117(17):e322-e324.
Testosterone. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T233244/Testosterone. Updated December 7, 2016. Accessed January 5, 2017.
Tobacco use. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114788/Tobacco-use. Updated April 6, 2016. Accessed January 5, 2017.
Toxicities of chemotherapeutic agents. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115935/Toxicities-of-chemotherapeutic-agents. Updated December 1, 2016. Accessed January 5, 2017.
- Reviewer: Michael Woods, MD
- Review Date: 01/2017
- Update Date: 01/16/2015