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by Scholten A

Chronic Kidney Disease

(CKD; Chronic Renal Disease)

Definition

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is when the kidneys do not filter blood the right way. It happens over a long period of time. This causes waste to build up in the body and leads to other health problems.
Anatomy of the Kidney
Glomerulonephritis
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

Causes

CKD is caused by damage or disease in the kidneys. Common causes include:

Risk Factors

CFD is more common in older adults. Smoking and alcohol use disorder are the main risk factors. Other things that may raise the risk are:

Symptoms

CKD may cause problems such as:
  • Feeling tired or weak
  • Trouble sleeping
  • Not wanting to eat
  • Nausea
  • Itching
  • Feeling that it is hard to breathe
  • Change in how food tastes
  • Feeling confused, restless, or sad

Diagnosis

The doctor will ask about symptoms and health history. A physical exam may be done. Blood and urine tests will be done to see how well the kidneys are working.
Other tests will be done to find a cause. You may need to see a doctor who treats kidney diseases.

Treatment

There is no cure. The goal of treatment is to prevent or slow damage and manage problems. Options are:

Medicine

The doctor may advise stopping or changing any medicines that hurt the kidneys.
Medicines may be given to:
  • Control health problems that hurt the kidneys, such as high blood pressure and diabetes
  • Manage problems caused by CKD, such as swelling, nausea, or feeling tired.

Lifestyle Changes

The doctor may advise:
  • Not smoking
  • Dietary changes
  • Regular exercise
People with severe CKD may need:
  • Dialysis —a machine that cleans the blood
  • A kidney transplant

Prevention

To lower the risk of CKD:
  • Manage health problems that can cause kidney damage, such as high blood pressure and diabetes
  • Maintain a healthy weight through diet and exercise
  • Do not smoke
  • Limit alcohol

RESOURCES

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
https//www.niddk.nih.gov
National Kidney Foundation
https://www.kidney.org

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Health Canada
https://www.canada.ca
The Kidney Foundation of Canada
https://www.kidney.ca

References

Chronic kidney disease. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Available at: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/kidney-disease/chronic-kidney-disease-ckd. Accessed December 28, 2020.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in adults. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/overview-of-chronic-kidney-disease-ckd-in-adults. Accessed December 28, 2020.
Gaitonde DY, Cook DL, Rivera IM. Chronic kidney disease: detection and evaluation. Am Fam Physician. 2017;96(12):776-783.

Revision Information

  • Reviewer: EBSCO Medical Review Board Adrienne Carmack, MD
  • Review Date: 09/2020
  • Update Date: 12/28/2020
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