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Reducing Your Risk of Stroke

Keeping your heart and blood vessels healthy can lower the risk of most strokes. There are many factors that can affect your heart health. The more of these you control, the more you lower your risk:

Stay at a Healthy Weight

If you are overweight or obese , talk to your doctor about how to lose weight. Follow a healthful eating plan and workout regularly. Lose weight slowly over time. A dietitian can help with meal planning and portion sizes.

Quit Smoking

Smoking can add to the build up of plaque in the arteries. This raises your risk of atherosclerosis. Over time, this raises the risk of blood clots, which can limit or block blood flow to the brain. Smoking can also cause tightening or spasming of blood vessels. This can build up more plaque.
If you smoke, talk to your doctor about ways to quit . Secondhand smoke can also be harmful. Stay away from places where people smoke.

Limit Alcohol

Drinking too much alcohol raises the risk of heart arrhythmias. This can affect blood flow to the brain. If you drink alcohol, aim for moderation. This means two drinks or less per day for men, and one drink or less per day for women. Some studies say that drinking in moderation may be helpful. You don't have to start drinking to get this small benefit.

Eat a Healthful Diet

Your diet can impact on your cholesterol levels. A healthful diet can lower your risk of a heart attack by limiting plaque build up.
Eat plenty of whole grains , fruits and veggies , and nuts. Also try replacing bad fats with good fats . This means eating more fats like olive and canola oil, and less saturated and trans fats like margarine.
You should eat fish at least two times a week. It has healthy omega-3 fatty acids. Talk to your doctor about whether you should take supplements.

Workout Regularly

Regular aerobic exercise, such as walking or biking, can help lower the risk of stroke and other heart problems. Aim for at least 30 minutes of exercise per day on most days of the week. If you have a desk job, aim for 60 minutes of exercise a day. Working out can help lower blood pressure, improve blood flow, raise your good cholesterol, and ease strain on your heart.
Talk to your doctor before starting any workout program.

Manage Other Health Problems

Some health problems are linked to an increased risk of heart disease or stroke. You can't get rid of all your risks, but you can try to manage health problems and lower your risk.
Hypertension
Hypertension is the biggest risk factor for stroke. If you have it, stick to the plan your doctor has given you. Check your blood pressure often. Talk to your doctor about checking it at home.
Dietary changes, regular exercise, and medicine can help you control your blood pressure. The DASH diet can also help.
Diabetes
High blood glucose levels can raise your risk for a stroke by harming smaller blood vessels and adding to plaque build up on blood vessel walls. Controlling blood glucose levels may put off heart problems that can lead to stroke. If you have diabetes, work with your doctor to make a plan to manage your blood glucose levels.
High blood glucose levels can raise your risk for a stroke by harming smaller blood vessels and adding to plaque build up on blood vessel walls. Controlling blood glucose levels may put off heart problems that can lead to stroke. If you have diabetes, work with your doctor to make a plan to manage your blood glucose levels.
Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is marked by repeated episodes of complete or partial airway obstruction during sleep. It is linked to disrupted sleep patterns and decreased oxygen supply. It has also been linked to many heart problems as well as early death. Problems from OSA are high blood pressure, heart failure, diabetes, stroke, and heart attack. Work with your doctor to manage your sleep apnea. This may include using a CPAP machine or surgery.
Daily Aspirin
Ask your doctor whether taking a daily aspirin is right for you. If you are at high risk for stroke, it may help may prevent one. This therapy does carry a risk of bleeding. Talk to your doctor first.

References

Bushnell C, McCullough LD, Awad IA, et al. Guidelines for the prevention of stroke in women: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2014;45(5):1545-1588. Available at: http://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/early/2014/02/06/01.str.0000442009.06663.48.full.pdf. Accessed January 8, 2019.
Furie KL, Kasner SE, Adams RJ, et al. Guidelines for the Prevention of Stroke in Patients With Stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack: A Guideline for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2011;42(1):227-276. Available at: http://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/early/2010/10/21/STR.0b013e3181f7d043.full.pdf. Accessed January 8, 2019.
Grau AJ, Barth C, Geletneky B, et al. Association between recent sports activity, sports activity in young adulthood, and stroke. Stroke. 2009;40(2):426-431.
How can a stroke be prevented? National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute website. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/stroke/prevention. Updated August 14, 2018. Accessed January 8, 2019.
Patient education: stroke prevention. EBSCO Nursing Reference Center website. Available at: https://www.ebscohost.com/nursing/products/nursing-reference-center. Updated June 29, 2018. Accessed January 9, 2019.
8/27/2013 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T143427/Stroke-acute-management: Corella D, Carrasco P, Sorli J, et al. Mediterranean diet reduces the adverse effect of the TCF7L2-rs7903146 polymortphism on cardiovascular risk factors and stroke incidence. Diabetes Care. 2013;6(1):3803-3811.
12/15/2016 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T113884/Physical-activity-for-cardiovascular-disease-prevention. Ekelund U, Steene-Johannessen J, Brown WJ. Does physical activity attenuate, or even eliminate, the detrimental association of sitting time with mortality? A harmonised meta-analysis of data from more than 1 million men and women. Lancet 2016;388(10051):1302-1310.

Revision Information

  • Reviewer: EBSCO Medical Review Board Rimas Lukas, MD
  • Review Date: 12/2018
  • Update Date: 01/07/2019
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