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Conditions InDepth: Gestational Diabetes
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is diabetes that happens when a woman is pregnant. Diabetes is when there is too much glucose in the blood. Insulin is a hormone that helps it move from the blood to the cells to be used for energy. Problems making or using it causes the glucose to build up. Hormones from the placenta can also block insulin from working.
GDM can cause these problems in the mother:
- The need for a Cesarean delivery
- Giving birth too early
- High blood pressure
- Metabolic syndrome
- Later type 2 diabetes
GDM can cause these problems in the baby:
Managing blood glucose levels can lower the risk of these problems.What are the risk factors for gestational diabetes?What are the symptoms of gestational diabetes?How is gestational diabetes diagnosed?What are the treatments for gestational diabetes?Are there screening tests for gestational diabetes?How can I reduce my risk of gestational diabetes?What questions should I ask my doctor?Where can I get more information about gestational diabetes?
Gestational diabetes. National Instutute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/diabetes/types/gestational. Accessed September 12, 2017.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116237/Gestational-diabetes-mellitus-GDM . Updated June 29, 2017. Accessed September 12, 2017.
Hillier TA, Pedula KL, et al. Excess gestational weight gain: modifying fetal macrosomia risk associated with maternal glucose. Obstet Gynecol. 2008;112:1007-1014.
2/5/2009 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116237/Gestational-diabetes-mellitus-GDM . Cheng YW, Chung JH, et al. Gestational weight gain and gestational diabetes mellitus: perinatal outcomes. Obstet Gynecol. 2008;112:1015-1022.
- Reviewer: EBSCO Medical Review Board Beverly Siegal, MD, FACOG
- Review Date: 09/2018
- Update Date: 09/17/2014