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by Carson-DeWitt R

Crohn Disease

(CD; Regional Enteritis)


Crohn disease is a severe, chronic inflammatory bowel disease. It causes inflammation, ulcers, and bleeding in the digestive tract. It usually affects the end portion of the small intestine called the ileum. However, any part of the digestive tract can be affected, from the mouth to the anus.
Small Intestine
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The cause of Crohn disease is not known. Inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease, tend to run in some families. Some researchers think that it is due to a reaction to a virus or bacteria that causes the immune system to overreact and damage the intestines.

Risk Factors

People of Jewish heritage are more likely to get Crohn disease. Your risk may also be increased if you have family members with inflammatory bowel disease or other autoimmune diseases.


Symptoms include:
  • Diarrhea
  • Abdominal cramps and pain
  • Rectal bleeding
  • Weight loss
  • Fatigue, weakness
  • Nausea
  • Fever
  • Mouth sores
  • Sores, abscesses in the anal area
Complications of untreated Crohn disease may lead to:
  • Fistulas—abnormal connections between the intestine and other organs or tissues, such as the bladder, vagina, or skin
  • Intestinal obstruction
  • Liver disease
  • Bowel perforation
  • Bleeding
  • Kidney stones
  • Gallstones
  • Osteoporosis


You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. If you are diagnosed with Crohn disease, testing can be used to monitor the disease and assess complications.
Tests may include:
  • Blood tests
  • Stool tests
Imaging tests evaluate the intestines and surrounding structures. These may include:
A biopsy may be taken during some of the these tests. A biopsy is a sample of the intestinal tissue that can be examined under a microscope.


Treatment may include:

Dietary Changes

Your doctor may advise that you avoid foods that trigger symptoms. These foods are different for each person. They may include:
  • Dairy foods due to lactose intolerance
  • Highly seasoned foods
  • High-fiber foods


There are many types of medications that are used to treat Crohn disease. Examples of these medications include:
  • Aminosalicylate medications such as sulfasalazine, mesalamine, and olsalazine
  • Anti-inflammatory medications such as prednisone, methylprednisolone, and budesonide
  • Immune modifiers such as azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine (6MP), and methotrexate
  • TNF inhibitors such as infliximab, adalimumab, and certolizumab
  • Antibiotics such as metronidazole, ampicillin, and ciprofloxacin


Very severe Crohn may not improve with medications. You may be advised to have the diseased section of your intestine removed. The two remaining healthier ends of the intestine are then joined together. You are still at high risk for the disease returning.
Surgery may also be done if you have an obstruction or fistulas.


Women may be able to reduce their risk of Crohn disease through exercise. Talk to your doctor about an exercise program that is best for you.


Crohn's & Colitis Foundation
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases


Crohn's and Colitis Canada
Health Canada


Crohn disease. Merck Manual Professional Version website. Available at: Updated Septembe 2017. Accessed January 9, 2018.
Crohn disease in adults. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: . Updated December 5, 2017. Accessed January 9, 2018.
Crohn's disease. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: Accessed January 9, 2018.
Hou JK, Abraham B, El-Serag H. Dietary intake and risk of developing inflammatory bowel disease: a systematic review of the literature. Am J Gastroenterol. 2011;106(4):563-573.
What is Crohn's disease? Crohn's & Colitis Foundation website. Available at: Accessed January 9, 2018.
11/25/2013 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance : Khalili H, Ananthakrishnan A, Konijeti GG, et al. Physical activity and risk of inflammatory bowel disease: prospective study from the Nurses' Health Study cohorts. BMJ 2013;347:f6633.
7/6/2015 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance : Kim DH, Carucci LR, Baker ME, et al. American College of Radiology appropriateness criteria for Crohn disease. Available at: Updated 2014.
7/21/2015 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance : Ungaro R, Bernstein CN, Gearry R, et al. Antibiotics associated with increased risk of new-onset Crohn's disease but not ulcerative colitis: a meta-analysis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2014;109(11):1728-1738.

Revision Information

  • Reviewer: EBSCO Medical Review Board Daus Mahnke, MD
  • Review Date: 11/2018
  • Update Date: 07/21/2015
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