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Measles

(Rubeola)

Definition

Measles is an infection that spreads quickly. It causes a fever and rash. It was once common in children. It is now less common in the United States due to the use of the measles vaccine .
Measles Rash
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Causes

Measles is caused by a virus. It is spread by:
  • Direct contact with nose or throat droplets of people who have measles, such as through kissing
  • Through the air, such as through coughing and sneezing (less common)
Measles can be spread:
  • 1 to 2 days before symptoms appear
  • 3 to 5 days before the rash
  • Up to 4 days after the rash

Risk Factors

Things that may raise the risk of this problem are:
  • Visiting places where measles is common
  • Not getting the measles immunization

Symptoms

Measles symptoms start 10 to 12 days after exposure. They are:
  • Fever, often high
  • Runny nose
  • Sneezing
  • Pain
  • Red eyes
  • Hacking cough
  • Sore throat
  • Lack of energy
  • Very small whitish spots inside the mouth
  • Raised, itchy red to brownish rash
Symptoms improve 7 to 10 days from the start of the rash.

Diagnosis

The doctor will ask about your symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done. This is enough to make the diagnosis.

Treatment

Measles is caused by a virus. It cannot be treated with antibiotics.
The goal of treatment is to manage symptoms until the virus passes. Choices are:
  • Supportive care, such as gargling with warm salt water and drinking plenty of fluids
  • Medicines to ease pain, such as acetaminophen

Prevention

Getting vaccinated is the best way to prevent measles. It comes as a single vaccine or with:
Some people may be given a vaccine within 3 days of exposure. This can prevent or lessen symptoms.
Immune globulin may also be given to some unvaccinated people within 6 days of exposure. This is usually for infants and pregnant women.

RESOURCES

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
http://www.cdc.gov
National Foundation for Infectious Diseases
http://www.nfid.org

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Caring for Kids—Canadian Paediatric Society
http://www.caringforkids.cps.ca
Public Health Agency of Canada
http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca

References

Measles. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/measles. Accessed October 30, 2020.
Measles. World Health Organization website. Available at: https://www.who.int/health-topics/measles#tab=tab%5F1. Accessed October 30, 2020.
Measles (rubeola). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2012/chapter-3-infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/measles-rubeola.htm. Accessed October 30, 2020.
Moss WJ. Measles. Lancet. 2017 Dec 2;390(10111):2490-2502.

Revision Information

  • Reviewer: EBSCO Medical Review Board James P. Cornell, MD
  • Review Date: 09/2020
  • Update Date: 10/30/2020
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