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Stress Fracture

(Fracture, Stress)


A stress fracture is a tiny crack in the bone. They are most common in the lower leg and foot.
Stress Fractures of the Tibia and Fibula
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This fracture is caused by repeated stress or overuse from:
  • Increasing the amount or intensity of an activity too quickly
  • Changing to a new playing surface
  • Not wearing the right shoes or wearing old shoes for a sport

Risk Factors

Stress fractures are more common in women. Things that may raise the risk of this fracture are:
  • A sudden increase in activity
  • Not getting enough rest between physical activities
  • Playing sports that involve running and jumping, such as track and field, tennis, gymnastics, and basketball
  • Having female athlete triad
  • Bone disorders, such as osteoporosis and Paget disease
  • Low levels of vitamin D and calcium
  • Smoking
  • Alcohol use disorder


Symptoms may be:
  • Pain that is worse with activity and better with rest
  • Swelling


The doctor will ask about your symptoms and health history. You will be asked about the activities that you do. A physical exam will be done.
Images may be taken of the bone. This can be done with:


It can take 6 to 8 weeks for a stress fracture to heal. The goals of treatment are to manage pain and support the bone as it heals. Options may be:
  • Medicine to ease pain and swelling
  • Shoe inserts or braces to help a foot or leg stress fracture heal
  • Crutches or a cane to keep weight off of a foot or leg stress fracture
  • Exercises to help with muscle strength and range of motion will be needed.


To lower the chance of a stress fracture:
  • Increase the amount and intensity of activities slowly over time.
  • Make any changes to playing surfaces slowly over time.
  • Wear the right shoes for sports.
  • Eat a diet that contains foods with vitamin D and calcium.


American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine
Ortho Info—American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons


Canadian Orthopaedic Association
Canadian Orthopaedic Foundation


Femoral stress fracture. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: Updated May 3, 2018. Accessed September 30, 2019.
Stress fractures. Ortho Info—American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons website. Available at: Updated October 2007. Accessed September 1, 2017.
Stress fractures of the foot and ankle. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: Updated March 20, 2017. Accessed September 30, 2019.
Tibial plateau fracture. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: Updated December 22, 2015. Accessed September 30, 2019.
Welck MJ, Hayes T, et al. Stress fractures of the foot and ankle. Injury 2017 Aug;48(8):1722.

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